III.—SYNTAX OF THE
whether personal or
relative, must agree in
gender, number, and person
with the nouns for which they stand, but not (necessarily) in case.
Thus we say: “I have lost my umbrella: it was standing in the corner.”
(i) Here it
neuter, singular, and third person, because
umbrella is neuter, singular,
and third person.
is in the objective case governed by have lost;
is in the nominative, because it is the subject to its own verb was standing.
whether personal or
relative, take their case
from the sentence
in which they stand.
Thus we say: “The sailor whom we met on the beach is ill.” Here sailor is in the
nominative, and whom,
its pronoun, in the objective.
(i) Whom is in the objective, because it is
governed by the verb met
in its own sentence. ‘“The sailor is ill” is
one sentence.’ “Him (whom = and
him) we met” is a second
(ii) The relative may be governed by a
preposition, as “The man on whom I relied has not disappointed me.”
RULE XXIII.— Who, whom, and
whose are used only of rational
of irrational; that may stand for nouns of any kind.
(i) In poetry,
whose may be used for of which. Thus Wordsworth, in the ‘Laodamia,’ has—
“In worlds whose course is equable and pure.”
RULE XXIV.—The possessive pronouns
mine, thine, ours, yours,
theirs can only be used
or, if used as a subject,
cannot have a noun with them.
Thus we say: “This is mine.” “Mine is
larger than yours.” But mine
are used for my
before a noun in poetry and impassioned prose: “Who knoweth the power of thine
RULE XXV.—After such, same, so much, so great, etc., the relative employed is not
Thus Milton has—
“Tears such as
(i) Shakespeare uses as
even after that—
I was wont to have.”
This usage cannot now be employed.
Remarks on Exceptions.
1. The antecedent
to the relative may be
Thus we find, in Wordsworth’s “Ode to
“There are ^ who ask not if thine eye
Be on them.”
And Shakespeare, in “Othello,”
“ ^ Who steals my purse, steals trash.”
And we have the well-known Greek
“ ^ Whom the gods love, die young
itself may be omitted.
(i) Thus Shelley has the line—
“Men must reap the things ^ they sow.”
(ii) And such phrases as, “Is this the
book ^ you wanted?” are very common.
3. The word but is often used for who + not.
It may hence be called the
Thus Scott has—
“There breathes not clansman of my line
(= who not) would have given his life for mine.”
4. The personal pronouns, when in the
dative or objective case, are generally without emphasis.
(i) If we say “Give me your hand,” the me
is unemphatic. If we say “Give me
your hand!” the me
has a stronger emphasis than the give,
and means me,
any other person.
(ii) Very ludicrous accidents sometimes
occur from the misplacing of the accent. Thus a careless reader once read: “And
he said, ‘Saddle me the ass;’ and they saddled him.”
Nelson’s famous signal, “England expects every man to do his duty,” was once
altered in emphasis with excellent effect. A midshipman on board one of H.M.’s
ships was very lazy, and inclined to allow others to do his work; and the
question went round the vessel: “Why is Mr So-and-so like England?” “Because he
expects every man to do his